The revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2) will herald an innovative new wave of services, transforming how we buy and sell online. From a regulatory perspective, this will tighten up the way e-commerce is carried out. Putting the onus on payment providers, platforms, and institutions to meet new forms of compliance, ﬁt for today’s digital economy. For EU customers, PSD2 means they can now ask institutions to share their data with third party service providers. Opening up APIs in this way oﬀers increased consumer choice and market opportunities. And posing increased challenges around customer loyalty, service and experience.